South America is the fourth largest continent in the world, located in the western hemisphere. It is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Pacific Ocean to the west, and the Caribbean Sea to the north. The continent is made up of 12 countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela, and is home to a diverse population of over 420 million people. South America is known for its rich history, cultural diversity, and stunning natural landscapes, including the Amazon Rainforest, the Andes mountain range, and the Iguazu Falls. It is also home to major cities such as Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, and Santiago, which are centres of culture, commerce, and finance.