The Middle East is a region in Western Asia and northeastern Africa that is traditionally defined as the area stretching from Iran to Egypt, including the Arabian Peninsula and the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The region is home to a diverse population of over 400 million people and is made up of several countries, including Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Egypt, and Turkey. The Middle East is known for its rich history and cultural heritage, with ancient civilizations such as the Sumerians, the Babylonians, and the Egyptians having originated in the region. It is also home to some of the world’s most important religious and cultural sites, such as the Kaaba in Mecca, the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, and the Temple of Artemis in Turkey. The region plays a critical role in world affairs and is a major centre for energy production, trade, and tourism.